Northern Territory Cross Sectional Study Design Pdf

(PDF) Bias in observational study designs Cross sectional

Study Design Epidemiology learning materials

cross sectional study design pdf

(PDF) Bias in observational study designs Cross sectional. Cross-sectional studies cannot be used to infer temporal relationships between exposures and outcomes Choosing an appropriate study design takes careful, Longitudinal vs. Cross-sectional Designs Design Participant # 1990 1995 2000 2005 Longitudinal P’s 1-25 Age 5 Age 10 Age 15 Age 20 Cross-sectional P’s 1-25 Age 5 P’s 26-50 Age 10 P’s 51-74 Age 15 P’s 75-100 Age 20 . Longitudinal Designs The quasi-independent variable is time; nothing has occurred from one observation to the next except for the passage of time O1 O2 O3 O4 O5 Mostly.

(PDF) Bias in observational study designs Cross sectional

Study Design Epidemiology learning materials. chapter 3 – research design and methods page 114 (1) A hypothesis (a testable proposition about the relationship between two or more concepts or variables) will be stated from the theory., Issues in the design of cross-sectional studies 2. Potential bias in cross-sectional studies 3. Analysis of cross-sectional studies 4. Strengths and weaknesses of cross-sectional studies. Read the resource text below. Resource text. A cross-sectional study examines the relationship between disease (or other health related state) and other variables of interest as they exist in a defined.

Defining a cross-sectional study as one that deals with status and a longitudinal study as one that deals with progress and change has erroneously led us to view the latter as an antonym of the former. What is, however, more surprising is that many of us do not hesitate to apply to the latter the design and analytical procedures devised for the former. Zazzo's criticisms of longitudinal Longitudinal vs. Cross-sectional Designs Design Participant # 1990 1995 2000 2005 Longitudinal P’s 1-25 Age 5 Age 10 Age 15 Age 20 Cross-sectional P’s 1-25 Age 5 P’s 26-50 Age 10 P’s 51-74 Age 15 P’s 75-100 Age 20 . Longitudinal Designs The quasi-independent variable is time; nothing has occurred from one observation to the next except for the passage of time O1 O2 O3 O4 O5 Mostly

Page 2 Level 4 – Observational –Descriptive Studies Level 4.a – Systematic review of descriptive studies Level 4.b – Cross-sectional study Issues in the design of cross-sectional studies 2. Potential bias in cross-sectional studies 3. Analysis of cross-sectional studies 4. Strengths and weaknesses of cross-sectional studies. Read the resource text below. Resource text. A cross-sectional study examines the relationship between disease (or other health related state) and other variables of interest as they exist in a defined

Cross-sectional studies cannot be used to infer temporal relationships between exposures and outcomes Choosing an appropriate study design takes careful As cohort studies and most cross-sectional studies are simply longitudinal and cross- sectional versions of the same study design, they are considered together in one appraisal guide.

Page 2 Level 4 – Observational –Descriptive Studies Level 4.a – Systematic review of descriptive studies Level 4.b – Cross-sectional study RESEARCH SERIES Observational research methods. Research design II: cohort, cross sectional, and case-control studies C J Mann..... Emerg Med J2003;20:54–60

Dept. of General Practice University of Glasgow. CRITICAL APPRAISAL CHECKLIST FOR AN ARTICLE ON DIAGNOSIS OR SCREENING. Study Design: Cross-sectional study Cross sectional studies are most commonly used in health to provide a snapshot of how common a disease or condition is at a single point in time and to look for patterns in a sample.

ies are called cross-sectional studies. Types of Study Designs: Observational Studies Case-Control Study Case-control studies are common study designs used in oral health re-search. Essentially, the investigator selects a group of persons with a disease of interest (cases), and then selects a group of persons who do not have the disease, called controls, and compares the exposures of interest Issues in the design of cross-sectional studies 2. Potential bias in cross-sectional studies 3. Analysis of cross-sectional studies 4. Strengths and weaknesses of cross-sectional studies. Read the resource text below. Resource text. A cross-sectional study examines the relationship between disease (or other health related state) and other variables of interest as they exist in a defined

RESEARCH SERIES Observational research methods. Research design II: cohort, cross sectional, and case-control studies C J Mann..... Emerg Med J2003;20:54–60 Defining a cross-sectional study as one that deals with status and a longitudinal study as one that deals with progress and change has erroneously led us to view the latter as an antonym of the former. What is, however, more surprising is that many of us do not hesitate to apply to the latter the design and analytical procedures devised for the former. Zazzo's criticisms of longitudinal

RESEARCH SERIES Observational research methods. Research design II: cohort, cross sectional, and case-control studies C J Mann..... Emerg Med J2003;20:54–60 Dept. of General Practice University of Glasgow. CRITICAL APPRAISAL CHECKLIST FOR AN ARTICLE ON DIAGNOSIS OR SCREENING. Study Design: Cross-sectional study

Longitudinal vs. Cross-sectional Designs Design Participant # 1990 1995 2000 2005 Longitudinal P’s 1-25 Age 5 Age 10 Age 15 Age 20 Cross-sectional P’s 1-25 Age 5 P’s 26-50 Age 10 P’s 51-74 Age 15 P’s 75-100 Age 20 . Longitudinal Designs The quasi-independent variable is time; nothing has occurred from one observation to the next except for the passage of time O1 O2 O3 O4 O5 Mostly The present study was designed in order to measure the level of customer satisfaction and also their purchasing behavior when shopping in retail pharmacies i.e. independent pharmacies and in chain or shopping mall pharmacies.

Cross sectional studies are most commonly used in health to provide a snapshot of how common a disease or condition is at a single point in time and to look for patterns in a sample. A cross sectional study design was used to investigate the extent of chronic fatigue and the associated psychosocial exposures in a developing country. The setting was a primary health centre

As cohort studies and most cross-sectional studies are simply longitudinal and cross- sectional versions of the same study design, they are considered together in one appraisal guide. Longitudinal vs. Cross-sectional Designs Design Participant # 1990 1995 2000 2005 Longitudinal P’s 1-25 Age 5 Age 10 Age 15 Age 20 Cross-sectional P’s 1-25 Age 5 P’s 26-50 Age 10 P’s 51-74 Age 15 P’s 75-100 Age 20 . Longitudinal Designs The quasi-independent variable is time; nothing has occurred from one observation to the next except for the passage of time O1 O2 O3 O4 O5 Mostly

Cross sectional studies are most commonly used in health to provide a snapshot of how common a disease or condition is at a single point in time and to look for patterns in a sample. RESEARCH SERIES Observational research methods. Research design II: cohort, cross sectional, and case-control studies C J Mann..... Emerg Med J2003;20:54–60

A cross sectional study design was used to investigate the extent of chronic fatigue and the associated psychosocial exposures in a developing country. The setting was a primary health centre Issues in the design of cross-sectional studies 2. Potential bias in cross-sectional studies 3. Analysis of cross-sectional studies 4. Strengths and weaknesses of cross-sectional studies. Read the resource text below. Resource text. A cross-sectional study examines the relationship between disease (or other health related state) and other variables of interest as they exist in a defined

Longitudinal vs. Cross-sectional Designs Design Participant # 1990 1995 2000 2005 Longitudinal P’s 1-25 Age 5 Age 10 Age 15 Age 20 Cross-sectional P’s 1-25 Age 5 P’s 26-50 Age 10 P’s 51-74 Age 15 P’s 75-100 Age 20 . Longitudinal Designs The quasi-independent variable is time; nothing has occurred from one observation to the next except for the passage of time O1 O2 O3 O4 O5 Mostly RESEARCH SERIES Observational research methods. Research design II: cohort, cross sectional, and case-control studies C J Mann..... Emerg Med J2003;20:54–60

As cohort studies and most cross-sectional studies are simply longitudinal and cross- sectional versions of the same study design, they are considered together in one appraisal guide. Longitudinal vs. Cross-sectional Designs Design Participant # 1990 1995 2000 2005 Longitudinal P’s 1-25 Age 5 Age 10 Age 15 Age 20 Cross-sectional P’s 1-25 Age 5 P’s 26-50 Age 10 P’s 51-74 Age 15 P’s 75-100 Age 20 . Longitudinal Designs The quasi-independent variable is time; nothing has occurred from one observation to the next except for the passage of time O1 O2 O3 O4 O5 Mostly

Cross-sectional studies cannot be used to infer temporal relationships between exposures and outcomes Choosing an appropriate study design takes careful Cross sectional studies are most commonly used in health to provide a snapshot of how common a disease or condition is at a single point in time and to look for patterns in a sample.

CRITICAL APPRAISAL CHECKLIST FOR AN ARTICLE ON DIAGNOSIS

cross sectional study design pdf

CRITICAL APPRAISAL CHECKLIST FOR AN ARTICLE ON DIAGNOSIS. chapter 3 – research design and methods page 114 (1) A hypothesis (a testable proposition about the relationship between two or more concepts or variables) will be stated from the theory., Page 2 Level 4 – Observational –Descriptive Studies Level 4.a – Systematic review of descriptive studies Level 4.b – Cross-sectional study.

CRITICAL APPRAISAL CHECKLIST FOR AN ARTICLE ON DIAGNOSIS

cross sectional study design pdf

(PDF) Bias in observational study designs Cross sectional. Page 2 Level 4 – Observational –Descriptive Studies Level 4.a – Systematic review of descriptive studies Level 4.b – Cross-sectional study Cross-sectional studies cannot be used to infer temporal relationships between exposures and outcomes Choosing an appropriate study design takes careful.

cross sectional study design pdf


ies are called cross-sectional studies. Types of Study Designs: Observational Studies Case-Control Study Case-control studies are common study designs used in oral health re-search. Essentially, the investigator selects a group of persons with a disease of interest (cases), and then selects a group of persons who do not have the disease, called controls, and compares the exposures of interest The present study was designed in order to measure the level of customer satisfaction and also their purchasing behavior when shopping in retail pharmacies i.e. independent pharmacies and in chain or shopping mall pharmacies.

The present study was designed in order to measure the level of customer satisfaction and also their purchasing behavior when shopping in retail pharmacies i.e. independent pharmacies and in chain or shopping mall pharmacies. Defining a cross-sectional study as one that deals with status and a longitudinal study as one that deals with progress and change has erroneously led us to view the latter as an antonym of the former. What is, however, more surprising is that many of us do not hesitate to apply to the latter the design and analytical procedures devised for the former. Zazzo's criticisms of longitudinal

Defining a cross-sectional study as one that deals with status and a longitudinal study as one that deals with progress and change has erroneously led us to view the latter as an antonym of the former. What is, however, more surprising is that many of us do not hesitate to apply to the latter the design and analytical procedures devised for the former. Zazzo's criticisms of longitudinal Page 2 Level 4 – Observational –Descriptive Studies Level 4.a – Systematic review of descriptive studies Level 4.b – Cross-sectional study

and can study the variations in the patterns of growth, while repeated cross-sectional studies can only look at the growth of the average (which may or may not be the same as the average growth) or other summary statistics, and the growth measured is confounded with other uncontrolled A cross sectional study design was used to investigate the extent of chronic fatigue and the associated psychosocial exposures in a developing country. The setting was a primary health centre

chapter 3 – research design and methods page 114 (1) A hypothesis (a testable proposition about the relationship between two or more concepts or variables) will be stated from the theory. Longitudinal vs. Cross-sectional Designs Design Participant # 1990 1995 2000 2005 Longitudinal P’s 1-25 Age 5 Age 10 Age 15 Age 20 Cross-sectional P’s 1-25 Age 5 P’s 26-50 Age 10 P’s 51-74 Age 15 P’s 75-100 Age 20 . Longitudinal Designs The quasi-independent variable is time; nothing has occurred from one observation to the next except for the passage of time O1 O2 O3 O4 O5 Mostly

Issues in the design of cross-sectional studies 2. Potential bias in cross-sectional studies 3. Analysis of cross-sectional studies 4. Strengths and weaknesses of cross-sectional studies. Read the resource text below. Resource text. A cross-sectional study examines the relationship between disease (or other health related state) and other variables of interest as they exist in a defined and can study the variations in the patterns of growth, while repeated cross-sectional studies can only look at the growth of the average (which may or may not be the same as the average growth) or other summary statistics, and the growth measured is confounded with other uncontrolled

ies are called cross-sectional studies. Types of Study Designs: Observational Studies Case-Control Study Case-control studies are common study designs used in oral health re-search. Essentially, the investigator selects a group of persons with a disease of interest (cases), and then selects a group of persons who do not have the disease, called controls, and compares the exposures of interest RESEARCH SERIES Observational research methods. Research design II: cohort, cross sectional, and case-control studies C J Mann..... Emerg Med J2003;20:54–60

A cross sectional study design was used to investigate the extent of chronic fatigue and the associated psychosocial exposures in a developing country. The setting was a primary health centre chapter 3 – research design and methods page 114 (1) A hypothesis (a testable proposition about the relationship between two or more concepts or variables) will be stated from the theory.

Cross-sectional studies cannot be used to infer temporal relationships between exposures and outcomes Choosing an appropriate study design takes careful ies are called cross-sectional studies. Types of Study Designs: Observational Studies Case-Control Study Case-control studies are common study designs used in oral health re-search. Essentially, the investigator selects a group of persons with a disease of interest (cases), and then selects a group of persons who do not have the disease, called controls, and compares the exposures of interest

A comparative cross sectional descriptive study of

cross sectional study design pdf

A comparative cross sectional descriptive study of. A cross sectional study design was used to investigate the extent of chronic fatigue and the associated psychosocial exposures in a developing country. The setting was a primary health centre, A cross sectional study design was used to investigate the extent of chronic fatigue and the associated psychosocial exposures in a developing country. The setting was a primary health centre.

CRITICAL APPRAISAL CHECKLIST FOR AN ARTICLE ON DIAGNOSIS

CRITICAL APPRAISAL CHECKLIST FOR AN ARTICLE ON DIAGNOSIS. As cohort studies and most cross-sectional studies are simply longitudinal and cross- sectional versions of the same study design, they are considered together in one appraisal guide., Page 2 Level 4 – Observational –Descriptive Studies Level 4.a – Systematic review of descriptive studies Level 4.b – Cross-sectional study.

Longitudinal vs. Cross-sectional Designs Design Participant # 1990 1995 2000 2005 Longitudinal P’s 1-25 Age 5 Age 10 Age 15 Age 20 Cross-sectional P’s 1-25 Age 5 P’s 26-50 Age 10 P’s 51-74 Age 15 P’s 75-100 Age 20 . Longitudinal Designs The quasi-independent variable is time; nothing has occurred from one observation to the next except for the passage of time O1 O2 O3 O4 O5 Mostly Cross sectional studies are most commonly used in health to provide a snapshot of how common a disease or condition is at a single point in time and to look for patterns in a sample.

Dept. of General Practice University of Glasgow. CRITICAL APPRAISAL CHECKLIST FOR AN ARTICLE ON DIAGNOSIS OR SCREENING. Study Design: Cross-sectional study and can study the variations in the patterns of growth, while repeated cross-sectional studies can only look at the growth of the average (which may or may not be the same as the average growth) or other summary statistics, and the growth measured is confounded with other uncontrolled

Issues in the design of cross-sectional studies 2. Potential bias in cross-sectional studies 3. Analysis of cross-sectional studies 4. Strengths and weaknesses of cross-sectional studies. Read the resource text below. Resource text. A cross-sectional study examines the relationship between disease (or other health related state) and other variables of interest as they exist in a defined Issues in the design of cross-sectional studies 2. Potential bias in cross-sectional studies 3. Analysis of cross-sectional studies 4. Strengths and weaknesses of cross-sectional studies. Read the resource text below. Resource text. A cross-sectional study examines the relationship between disease (or other health related state) and other variables of interest as they exist in a defined

Dept. of General Practice University of Glasgow. CRITICAL APPRAISAL CHECKLIST FOR AN ARTICLE ON DIAGNOSIS OR SCREENING. Study Design: Cross-sectional study Cross sectional studies are most commonly used in health to provide a snapshot of how common a disease or condition is at a single point in time and to look for patterns in a sample.

A cross sectional study design was used to investigate the extent of chronic fatigue and the associated psychosocial exposures in a developing country. The setting was a primary health centre chapter 3 – research design and methods page 114 (1) A hypothesis (a testable proposition about the relationship between two or more concepts or variables) will be stated from the theory.

Longitudinal vs. Cross-sectional Designs Design Participant # 1990 1995 2000 2005 Longitudinal P’s 1-25 Age 5 Age 10 Age 15 Age 20 Cross-sectional P’s 1-25 Age 5 P’s 26-50 Age 10 P’s 51-74 Age 15 P’s 75-100 Age 20 . Longitudinal Designs The quasi-independent variable is time; nothing has occurred from one observation to the next except for the passage of time O1 O2 O3 O4 O5 Mostly chapter 3 – research design and methods page 114 (1) A hypothesis (a testable proposition about the relationship between two or more concepts or variables) will be stated from the theory.

The present study was designed in order to measure the level of customer satisfaction and also their purchasing behavior when shopping in retail pharmacies i.e. independent pharmacies and in chain or shopping mall pharmacies. Cross-sectional studies cannot be used to infer temporal relationships between exposures and outcomes Choosing an appropriate study design takes careful

Cross sectional studies are most commonly used in health to provide a snapshot of how common a disease or condition is at a single point in time and to look for patterns in a sample. Defining a cross-sectional study as one that deals with status and a longitudinal study as one that deals with progress and change has erroneously led us to view the latter as an antonym of the former. What is, however, more surprising is that many of us do not hesitate to apply to the latter the design and analytical procedures devised for the former. Zazzo's criticisms of longitudinal

RESEARCH SERIES Observational research methods. Research design II: cohort, cross sectional, and case-control studies C J Mann..... Emerg Med J2003;20:54–60 RESEARCH SERIES Observational research methods. Research design II: cohort, cross sectional, and case-control studies C J Mann..... Emerg Med J2003;20:54–60

The present study was designed in order to measure the level of customer satisfaction and also their purchasing behavior when shopping in retail pharmacies i.e. independent pharmacies and in chain or shopping mall pharmacies. Defining a cross-sectional study as one that deals with status and a longitudinal study as one that deals with progress and change has erroneously led us to view the latter as an antonym of the former. What is, however, more surprising is that many of us do not hesitate to apply to the latter the design and analytical procedures devised for the former. Zazzo's criticisms of longitudinal

ies are called cross-sectional studies. Types of Study Designs: Observational Studies Case-Control Study Case-control studies are common study designs used in oral health re-search. Essentially, the investigator selects a group of persons with a disease of interest (cases), and then selects a group of persons who do not have the disease, called controls, and compares the exposures of interest As cohort studies and most cross-sectional studies are simply longitudinal and cross- sectional versions of the same study design, they are considered together in one appraisal guide.

Dept. of General Practice University of Glasgow. CRITICAL APPRAISAL CHECKLIST FOR AN ARTICLE ON DIAGNOSIS OR SCREENING. Study Design: Cross-sectional study RESEARCH SERIES Observational research methods. Research design II: cohort, cross sectional, and case-control studies C J Mann..... Emerg Med J2003;20:54–60

A cross sectional study design was used to investigate the extent of chronic fatigue and the associated psychosocial exposures in a developing country. The setting was a primary health centre The present study was designed in order to measure the level of customer satisfaction and also their purchasing behavior when shopping in retail pharmacies i.e. independent pharmacies and in chain or shopping mall pharmacies.

As cohort studies and most cross-sectional studies are simply longitudinal and cross- sectional versions of the same study design, they are considered together in one appraisal guide. As cohort studies and most cross-sectional studies are simply longitudinal and cross- sectional versions of the same study design, they are considered together in one appraisal guide.

Page 2 Level 4 – Observational –Descriptive Studies Level 4.a – Systematic review of descriptive studies Level 4.b – Cross-sectional study Page 2 Level 4 – Observational –Descriptive Studies Level 4.a – Systematic review of descriptive studies Level 4.b – Cross-sectional study

As cohort studies and most cross-sectional studies are simply longitudinal and cross- sectional versions of the same study design, they are considered together in one appraisal guide. Issues in the design of cross-sectional studies 2. Potential bias in cross-sectional studies 3. Analysis of cross-sectional studies 4. Strengths and weaknesses of cross-sectional studies. Read the resource text below. Resource text. A cross-sectional study examines the relationship between disease (or other health related state) and other variables of interest as they exist in a defined

Study Design Epidemiology learning materials

cross sectional study design pdf

A comparative cross sectional descriptive study of. Issues in the design of cross-sectional studies 2. Potential bias in cross-sectional studies 3. Analysis of cross-sectional studies 4. Strengths and weaknesses of cross-sectional studies. Read the resource text below. Resource text. A cross-sectional study examines the relationship between disease (or other health related state) and other variables of interest as they exist in a defined, chapter 3 – research design and methods page 114 (1) A hypothesis (a testable proposition about the relationship between two or more concepts or variables) will be stated from the theory..

Study Design Epidemiology learning materials

cross sectional study design pdf

CRITICAL APPRAISAL CHECKLIST FOR AN ARTICLE ON DIAGNOSIS. and can study the variations in the patterns of growth, while repeated cross-sectional studies can only look at the growth of the average (which may or may not be the same as the average growth) or other summary statistics, and the growth measured is confounded with other uncontrolled and can study the variations in the patterns of growth, while repeated cross-sectional studies can only look at the growth of the average (which may or may not be the same as the average growth) or other summary statistics, and the growth measured is confounded with other uncontrolled.

cross sectional study design pdf

  • (PDF) Bias in observational study designs Cross sectional
  • A comparative cross sectional descriptive study of
  • Study Design Epidemiology learning materials

  • Dept. of General Practice University of Glasgow. CRITICAL APPRAISAL CHECKLIST FOR AN ARTICLE ON DIAGNOSIS OR SCREENING. Study Design: Cross-sectional study Page 2 Level 4 – Observational –Descriptive Studies Level 4.a – Systematic review of descriptive studies Level 4.b – Cross-sectional study

    Cross sectional studies are most commonly used in health to provide a snapshot of how common a disease or condition is at a single point in time and to look for patterns in a sample. Dept. of General Practice University of Glasgow. CRITICAL APPRAISAL CHECKLIST FOR AN ARTICLE ON DIAGNOSIS OR SCREENING. Study Design: Cross-sectional study

    A cross sectional study design was used to investigate the extent of chronic fatigue and the associated psychosocial exposures in a developing country. The setting was a primary health centre chapter 3 – research design and methods page 114 (1) A hypothesis (a testable proposition about the relationship between two or more concepts or variables) will be stated from the theory.

    and can study the variations in the patterns of growth, while repeated cross-sectional studies can only look at the growth of the average (which may or may not be the same as the average growth) or other summary statistics, and the growth measured is confounded with other uncontrolled Longitudinal vs. Cross-sectional Designs Design Participant # 1990 1995 2000 2005 Longitudinal P’s 1-25 Age 5 Age 10 Age 15 Age 20 Cross-sectional P’s 1-25 Age 5 P’s 26-50 Age 10 P’s 51-74 Age 15 P’s 75-100 Age 20 . Longitudinal Designs The quasi-independent variable is time; nothing has occurred from one observation to the next except for the passage of time O1 O2 O3 O4 O5 Mostly

    A cross sectional study design was used to investigate the extent of chronic fatigue and the associated psychosocial exposures in a developing country. The setting was a primary health centre and can study the variations in the patterns of growth, while repeated cross-sectional studies can only look at the growth of the average (which may or may not be the same as the average growth) or other summary statistics, and the growth measured is confounded with other uncontrolled

    and can study the variations in the patterns of growth, while repeated cross-sectional studies can only look at the growth of the average (which may or may not be the same as the average growth) or other summary statistics, and the growth measured is confounded with other uncontrolled As cohort studies and most cross-sectional studies are simply longitudinal and cross- sectional versions of the same study design, they are considered together in one appraisal guide.

    Longitudinal vs. Cross-sectional Designs Design Participant # 1990 1995 2000 2005 Longitudinal P’s 1-25 Age 5 Age 10 Age 15 Age 20 Cross-sectional P’s 1-25 Age 5 P’s 26-50 Age 10 P’s 51-74 Age 15 P’s 75-100 Age 20 . Longitudinal Designs The quasi-independent variable is time; nothing has occurred from one observation to the next except for the passage of time O1 O2 O3 O4 O5 Mostly ies are called cross-sectional studies. Types of Study Designs: Observational Studies Case-Control Study Case-control studies are common study designs used in oral health re-search. Essentially, the investigator selects a group of persons with a disease of interest (cases), and then selects a group of persons who do not have the disease, called controls, and compares the exposures of interest

    cross sectional study design pdf

    chapter 3 – research design and methods page 114 (1) A hypothesis (a testable proposition about the relationship between two or more concepts or variables) will be stated from the theory. The present study was designed in order to measure the level of customer satisfaction and also their purchasing behavior when shopping in retail pharmacies i.e. independent pharmacies and in chain or shopping mall pharmacies.

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